The purpose of this book is to explain why red-winged blackbirds are polygynous and to describe the effects of this mating system on other aspects of the biology of the species. Polygyny is a mating system in which individual males form long-term mating relationships with more than one female at a time. The authors show that females choose to mate polygynously because there is little cost to sharing male parental care in this species, and because females gain protection against nest predation by nesting near other females. Polygyny has the effect of intensifying sexual selection on males by increasing the variance in mating success among males. For females, polygyny means that they will often share a male's territory with other females during the breeding season and will thus be forced to adapt to frequent female-female interactions.
This work reviews the results of many studies by other researchers, as well as presenting the authors' own results. Studies of red-winged blackbirds have ranged from long-term investigations of reproductive success and demography, to research on genetic parentage based on modern molecular methods, to a variety of experimental manipulations of ecological circumstances and behavior. Since the red-winged blackbird is one of the best studied species of any taxa in terms of its behavior and ecology, the authors have a particularly extensive body of results on which to base their conclusions.
Originally published in 1995.
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This title focuses on the essentials of bird identification in East Africa by presenting those species that are most likely to be seen in accessible habitats throughout the region. The text for each species highlights the diagnostic feature or combination of features that will enable the birdwatcher to most easily identify the bird. For those species that are sexually dimorphic, have both breeding and non-breeding plumage, or in which the juvenile plumage differs markedly from that of the adult, more than one photograph has been included. Thumbnail silhouettes aid the reader in quickly locating the correct group of birds, and for each species account a map shows the bird's distribution.
Shorebirds of North Americacontains over 200 color photos of all the breeding and commonly occurring shorebird species found in North America. Species accounts show breeding and nonbreeding plumages when differences occur, as well as many immature and juvenile plumages. Some similar species are shown side by side to allow for easier ID comparison, such as the dowitchers, yellowlegs and willets.
In clear, easy-to-grasp language, the author covers many of the topics that you will need to know in order to launch and run a successful business venture.
Bird groups covered include: Loons and Grebes; Waterfowl; Diurnal Predators; Large Predators; Falcons; Eagles, Vultures, Ospreys and Hawks; Lesser Predators; Hawks and Kestrel; Herons, Bitterns, Rails and Coot; Gulls, Terns, and Shorebirds; Cormorant and Dove; Nocturnal Predators; Owls; Nighthawk and Kingfisher; Woodpecker; Swallows; Perching Birds.
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